University of Queensland and Department of Planologi University of Gajahmada have started conducting a joint studio as a field trip on assisted groups of ArkomJogja and Paguyuban Kalijawi since 2014. This activity was initiated from research on the concept of community empowerment of Kalijawi community in responding environmental problems. Then, this activity had continue on every year to become an annual joint studio activity conducted by UQ X Planologi UGM.
Collaboration program between ArkomJogja x Kalijawi and UQ x Planology UGM are a great opportunity for the ArkomJogja and Kalijawi to see the problems of their assisted areas through an academic point of view. In some instances, joint programs studio also did presentation process to the government about the problems they have been get on the field. Therefore, the problems encountered in the assisted area of Arkom and Kalijawi can be indirectly conveyed to the government.
The program, which usually carried out on July / August each year has a concept that students must go directly to the field and community to undertake assessments and identification through surveys, discussions, and interviews with community around the selected location. The results of identification were presented to the government. Then they need to learn the opinions of the government regarding the existing problems. Both information was synthesized and analyzed into a problem hypothesis which was then cross-checked with the community directly. After the check process is completed, the student will carry out a final analysis to find problems and solutions from each location. The final results are then presented to the community, lecturers and the government.
2018 is the fourth year of the collaboration program UQ x Planologi UGM with ArkomJogja and Kalijawi which conducted in three locations namely Joho, Gambiran and Pakuncen. The three locations were chosen based on each different problem . Joho is anew assisted areas of Arkom and Kalijawi from the Settlement Profiling activities. Therefore, Joho ‘s requires an initial assessment and identification of existing problems.Gambiran who already have regional planning by the community, they face obstacles in the implementation process because of the lack of response from the government. In contrast to Pakuncen where the government has begun to be aware of regional structuring program implementation. These three issues were the briefs for UQ and UGM students in conducting an assessment process that found many interesting things.
Following are the final reports and oral history that they have made after they did the assessment in those kampong on 2 days:
The following case study is focused on the new assisted Joho Kampung situated in the Depok district of Sleman Regency. Joho’s boundaries are largely defined by the Buntung River to the west and Pelang River to the east, with its southern extent at the joining of the two watercourses. Joho consists of 10 sub-districts covering approximately 46 hectares of land, however the main focus of the case study is on the three sub-districts of RT 4, 7 and 8 situated on the west of Joho, as identified by the community of the Kampung to be most problematic.
Through investigating the Joho area, the community identified three main issues:
Polluted rivers, seasonal flooding, and the continuous practice of burning rubbish. The Joho area receives flow from two rivers consisting of the Pelang (east) and Buntung (west) Rivers. While the Pelang river is relatively clean, the Buntung river is of extremely poor quality, carrying pollution into Joho from the upstream Colombo traditional market and from the neighbouring village of Kentungan. The pollutants entering the river systems consist of run-off from fish and meat market stalls and rubbish from community disposing of their municipal waste into the waterway, including plastic and other manufactured goods. Greywater pipes from households both in Joho and surrounding districts flow directly into the rivers which introduces detergent-based pollutants. Beyond the environmental damage these behaviours cause, the poor state of the waterway creates a pungent odour that reduces quality of life for community who live close by, and even impedes religious observance in the river-side Sambisari mosque.
Honimah is a devout Muslim who lives next to a mosque. She states that she is grateful to God for her peaceful and happy life. Originally from western Java, she married her husband at the age of sixteen and moved to Joho in 1971. Honimah and her husband earn money by making hats at home, a profession she found herself in because of her husband, who was a tailor before they moved to Joho.
Honimah makes only minimal use of the waste disposal systems being provided in Joho, due to the fact that these services cost Rp30,000 per month. She uses the trash bank, keeping garbage that can be exchanged for money that is collected at the end of each year. She throws plant waste and excrement from her large collection of birds straight into the river, while burning plastics and diapers. She states that she does not use waste systems because she believes that her family can look after itself and develop its own system. She acknowledges that garbage has a bad effect, citing the stench, but argues that if all of the waste from the nearby market is being thrown in the river, it does not really make a difference if she changes her habits herself.
“The rubbish in the river aren’t just coming from the local people,but also from the traditional market out of the neighborhood(Colombo Market).” – Honimah
Surasih is a thirty-three year old housewife originally from western Java. She married at the age of twenty-five and moved to Joho to live with her husband and his parents in a medium-sized dwelling, witch her in-laws own. She has lived with them ever since. To earn money, she freelance house-keeps around the Denggung neighbourhood. Her husband is a tailor and works just outside of Yogyakarta in Sleman.
Surasih and her family make use of the sanitation services being rolled out in Joho. These include trucks that have been introduced a few months ago to collect waste directly and a trash bank that collects waste for recycling and reimburses participants. They also have a basket out the front of their house for non-recyclable goods that is emptied three times weekly. Unfortunately, the trash bank accepts waste products only once monthly, meaning that Surasih has to store these products in the house for this duration, a process she feels takes too long. She has observed other people in the community who have stuck to old habits and continue burning and dumping trash in the river, but she believes this is only because the truck collection service is still relatively new. In time, she thinks that people who continue to do this will be made to feel guilty by other members of the community
“Why I didn’t join the waste bank community was because their system is like pick the rubbish once in a month.It just a long time because it makes the rubbish become a stack in our house.So every house collect their rubbish first then sort them to know which rubbish can be sold for the waste bank just receive the sellable rubbish.” –Surasih
Arkom had completed mapping of Gambiran in 2014, these maps were discussed with the community who identifying areas of significance. These were used in conjunction with the transect walk data to create a comprehensive overview of the Gambiran kampung area. These methods allowed a platform to understand and discuss the complex development issues that the community faces.
Three key challenges faced by the community were identified, two major, and one secondary. The two major issues are the implementation and funding for the M3K program, and the inadequate access to proper sanitation infrastructure for many community members. The secondary issue identified was the community’s lack of access to clean drinking water. It should be noted that while access to clean water is exceptionally important, for the people of Gambiran it was identified as a secondary issue, as is discussed further below.
The M3K program is a national initiative enacted by municipalities. It’s aims involve improving; housing, environmental conditions, and susceptibility to flooding for riverside areas. M3K stands for mundur (go back), munggah (go up), madep kali (make it face the river): houses are cut in order to comply with setbacks from rivers providing space for an inspection road; stories are added to cut houses to compensate for lost space; the entryways of homes are moved to face the river as it is thought that people are more inclined to take care of the semi-public area in front of their home rather than the private back yard.
The residents of Gambiran lack access to clean water. Water collected from personal wells is undrinkable, containing large amounts of sediments. As such the community drinks and cooks with bottled water – washing and cleaning is done with water from wells. Some residents complain that the water gives them itchy and irritated skin, the majority of the community says they are now desensitised to the water. After testing in 2005 by the Environmental Agency, the water in Gambiran was deemed unacceptable. The community was incorporated into the PAM program, which seeks to provide affordable water access across Indonesia. A water pipe was built to the community in 2007 and has never been turned on. The community deals with this lack of clean water access and collectively agrees it is a secondary issue. While it is seen as secondary, water access it still directly affects the economic opportunities of the community. Bottled water is a large cost for many households and being an industrious community many people in Gambiran make and sell food in markets around the neighbourhood and wider city.
Tuminah is 46 years old and has spent her whole life living in the Gambiran kampung located on the Gajahwong river. Owning their own home in Gambiran for 25 years, and no lssonger needing to live with others is one of the things she is most proud of. Her house is made up of two households, one with her parents, and the other where she lives with her husband and two daughters.
Tuminah’s days start at 4am so she has time to complete her activities as a parent and a woman before she spends up to 11 hours working as a tailor. Tuminah explained that programs for developing businesses are limited, and informal loan programs are the only option she feels is available to her. As well as money, she feels that she doesn’t have the capacity to market and sell the products herself, and this lack of confidence has prevented her from pursuing an informal loan.
“I want to be independent, not depending on others, but the problem is funds if I want to make and sell my own products by myself”.
The City of Yogyakarta has a program for revitalising the riverside communities called Mundur, Munggah, Madhep Kali (M3K). The goal of the program is to manage settlements located on the river bank based on the condition of the river. The M3K program consists of Mundur (provide a distance of 3 metres from the river), Munggah (building the house into 2 storeys), and Madhep Kali (make houses face the river, so the river becomes the front yard). The community’s views and concerns about how the M3K program will be implemented is the main research issue for Pakuncen. In general, the Pakuncen community appears to be well organised, cohesive, open to collaborative approaches and has established a savings fund to develop community areas and infrastructure.
The community meetings identified the M3K program as the main issue of concern, along with a general lack of consultation and communication with involved stakeholders. The group discussions and methods discussed above highlighted the community does not have an effective ability to raise concerns with the local government and they do not appear to have any influence on how the M3K program will be implemented. Although Pakuncen is affected by M3K, the local government does not appear to have involvement with the implementation of the M3K program and does not appear to have any influence over, or communication with the organisations implementing M3K.
Of significance to the community, two organisations have visited the community in relation to implementing M3K, both of which have different approaches. FKWA, a community based organisation, has an implementation method which involves demolishing the houses without rebuilding them into two storeys. In contrast, Kotaku, a national based program, involves cutting the houses and rebuilding the affected houses as two storeys. The two approaches have significant implications for the community, with the Kotaku approach being supported by the community and the FKWA approach not being supported. The community remains uncertain as to which organisation will implement M3K, and its associated timing.
Tugium is 80 years old and lived in Braden in her earlier life. She moved to Pakuncen some time prior to 1965. She raised one son and has 4 grandchildren. Tugium’s husband passed away two years ago. One of her sons has also passed away. She lives with her daughter in law who is also a Kalijwai member.
Tugium’s daughter in law supports her financially. Tugium’s grandchildren give her daughter in law 100, 000 IDR every year at Eid which is split between the two. Her daughter in law contributes to the Kalijawai savings group; however, Tugium has no access to the fund. She rents her home from a woman who lives in Pakuncen and the rent for her house costs 1.3million IDR, annually. Any renovations to the house are completed by her family, without financial support from any organisations of the government. The renovations to the house usually consist of painting the house and fixing the roof when there are holes that allow rain to enter their living space. Tugium’s house will not be effected by the M3K program, as she is not close to the river. She had not heard of the 3m policy until she was informed by UQ and UGM students on the 7th of July 2018.
“The important thing is that it is nice to live in Pakuncen. We are happy enough, we don’t want to be moved or relocated to another place. It is hard for us because we don’t know where we could live outside Pakuncen. The owner of our house is very kind to us, they understand about my condition.”
Tugium feels comfortable living in Pakuncen, although she feels the government could be doing more as the some of the paths have not been finished. She appreciates the help she gets and feels she would stop receiving assistance from the social ministry if she were to move. As such, Tugium feels that she is content with living in Pakuncen.